Stock Exchange


A stock exchange is a centralized marketplace where buyers and sellers come together to trade financial instruments, primarily stocks, bonds, and other securities. It provides a platform for companies to raise capital by issuing shares and for investors to buy or sell these financial instruments.


Marketplace for Securities: Stock exchanges facilitate the buying and selling of various financial instruments.

Price Discovery: Prices of securities are determined through the interaction of buyers and sellers in the market.


Companies: List on the exchange to raise capital by issuing shares (initial public offering – IPO).

Investors: Buy and sell securities to achieve investment goals.

Types of Stock Exchanges:

Primary Exchanges: Major markets like the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) or the London Stock Exchange (LSE).

Secondary Exchanges: Smaller regional or electronic exchanges.


Capital Formation: Companies raise funds for growth and development.

Liquidity: Investors can easily buy or sell securities, ensuring market efficiency.


NYSE (New York Stock Exchange): The largest stock exchange in the world based on market capitalization.

NASDAQ: Known for its electronic trading platform, particularly for technology and internet-based stocks.


How do stock exchanges operate?

Buyers and sellers place orders through brokers, and the exchange matches these orders to facilitate transactions.

Can anyone invest in the stock market?

Yes, individuals can invest in the stock market through brokerage accounts.

How are stock prices determined?

Stock prices are determined by the forces of supply and demand in the market.

Are there risks associated with investing in the stock market?

Yes, the value of stocks can fluctuate, and there are risks of financial loss.


Stock exchanges play a pivotal role in the functioning of financial markets, serving as the primary venue for buying and selling securities. They contribute to capital formation, liquidity, and price discovery, making them essential components of the global financial system.